80 soru dakika. YDS İLKBAHAR/İngilizce A) If B) So that C) As if D) Although E) Unless YDS İLKBAHAR/İngilizce yds deneme sınavı – DENEME SINAVI January Issue No. Ales Deneme 3 PDF Download – deneme sınavı indir ekim 24, emrah sahin ales. Sinceb udgetds ependo n appropriationans d nots ales,t he Seçimler-Daha zor Sorular” çoğu günbatımı önerisinin merkezindeki problemleri tanımlar. ” Şehir Merkezi Zorluklarını Anlama,” Siyaset Bilimi dergisi (İlkbahar, ), sf. At the time I finished my Ph.D., in , there was as a public policy. mudur-mudur-yardimciligi-sinavi-soru-paylasim-alani-k html html html.

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Reviewing applications can be fun and only takes a few minutes. Feedback from clients and colleagues on Willingness to Work Again No feedback collected. Levine, Universitoyf Maryland General field: Social Sciences Detailed field: Management Source text – English Governmenotr ganizationars en eitheirm mortanlo ru nshrinkable.

L’ ike growth,o rganizationadl ecline and death,b y erosiono r plan, is a formo f organizational change;b uta ll thep roblemos f managingor ganizational changea re compoundebdy a scarcityof slackr esources.

T hesee ventsa nd forecastsr,a ngingf romt axpayer revoltsl ike California’ss uccessfuPl roposition1 3 campaigna nd financiaclr isesl iket hen sotular ollapsei ntob ankruptcyof NewY orkC sofular overnmenant d thea gonizing retrenchmeonft it sb ureaucracyto, thef orebodinpgr edictionso ft he” limitso fg rowthm” odelersa,l so relinkis sues of politicael conomyof them ostm onumentsailg nificance to practiceosf p ublicm anagement.

I wisht o thankt hef ollowinpge ople forp rovidinvga luablec ommentasb outt hatd raftP: In thisp eriodo f expansiona nd optimismam ong proponentosf an activeg overnmenits,o latedi ncidentosf zerog rowthan d declineh aveb eenc onsidereadn omalous; and thed ifficultifeasc edb yt hem anagemenotf declining agenciesc opingw ithr etrenchmehnatv eb eenr egardedas alss hem ainstreamof p ublicm anagemencot ncernsI.

I t is a problemf orm anagerws hom ustm aintainor ganizational capacityb yd evisingn ewm anageriaalr rangemenwtsit hin prevailinsgt ructurtehs atw ered esignedu ndera ssumptions ofg rowthI.

Alees ecline and AdministrativTeh eory Growthis a commond enominatotrh atl inksc ontemporarym anagementth eoryto itsh istoricaaln tecedentasn d qles acticews ithp ublicp olicyc hoicesW.

F rom1 t o h e serveda s foundincgo -editoorf Administratiaonnd S ociety. If Scott’sa ssertionasb outt he pervasiveneosfsa growthid eologyin m anagemenarte c orrecto, urm anagemenant dp olicyp aradigmws illh avet ob e replacedo r augmentebdy n ewf ramewortkos h elpt o identify criticalq uestionsa nd strategiesf or action.

Put squarelyw, ithougtr owthh,o wd o wem anagep ublico rganizations? We have no readyo r comprehensivane swerst o this questiono, nlyh uncheasn d shardso f evidencteo servea s pointso f departureU. Moreoverr,e trenchmecnotm poundtsh ec hoiceo fm anagemenstt rategiews ithp ilkbaahar. Howeveri,n timeso fa usterityw,h ent hesec ontroaln da nalytict oolsa ren eededt o helpt o minimizteh er isko fm akingm istakest,h em oneyf ort heird evelopmenant d implementatioins u navailable.

Similarlyw, ithouts lack resourcest o produce” winwin consensus-buildisnolgu tionasn dt op rovidsei dep aymentts o overcomree sistancteo changeo, rganizationwsi ll haved ifficultinyn ovatinagn dm aintaininfgle xibilitYye.

Y Lack ofg rowthal so createas numbeorf s eriousp ersonnelp roblemsF. A” lso, withouetx pansionp, ublico rganizationts hata re constrainebdy merita nd careert enure systemasr eu nablet o attracatn da ccommodatnee wy oung talentW. Declinef orcesu s to sets omeo f ourl ogicf orr ationally structurinorgg anizationosn enda ndu psided own.

F ori nstance, u nderc onditionosf growthan d abundanceo, ne problemf orm anagerasn do rganizationdael signeris how tos etu pe xclusionarmye chanismtos preven”tf reer iders” employeeasn d clientsw ho sharei n thec onsumptioonf theo rganizationc’so llectivbe enefitws ithousth aringt he burdent ilkbahag roducedt heb enefitf romt akinga dvantage of thee nrichedco mmonp ool of resourcesI. In otherw ords,t o maintain ordera ndc apacityw henu ndergoindge clineo, rganizations needm echanismlisk el ong-tercmo ntractws ithc lausest hat makep ensionsn on-portabilfe brokena t thee mployee’s discretionT.

As a il,bahar xamplei,n flatioenr odess teadys tatess o 209 stayinge vena ctuallyr equirese xtractinmg orer esources fromt he ilkbahae nvironmenatn d effectuating greateirn ternaelc onomiesT. D” uringt hese periodso f economich ardshipan d uncertaintpyr,e ssuries puto n thef ederagl overnmetnot f ollowK eynesiadni ctates and spendm oret hroughd eficitf inancinga;t the same time,c riticapl ublico piniona nd legal mandatesr equire This content downloaded from 5.


Thesec haracteristiocfs decliningp ublico rganizations are likep ieceso f a subtleji gsawp uzzlew hosep arameters can onlyb e guesseda t and whosea bstrusenesdse epens withe ach newa ttemptto fiti ts edgest ogetherT. A typologyof causeso f publico rganizationadle – clinea nd correspondinsegt so f tacticsa nd decisionr ules availablef orm anagincgu tbackws ills ervea s a beginning. The Causes of Public OrganizationD ecline Cuttingb acka nyk indo f organizatioins difficulbt,u ta good deal of thep roblemo f cuttingb ack publico rganizationsi s compoundebdy t heirs pecials tatusa s authoritative, n on-markeext tensionosf t hes tate”.

Publico rganizationsa reu sedt o deliverse rvicetsh atu suallyh aven o direct or easilym easurablme onetarvya lueo r whenm arketar – rangemenftsa ilt o providet hen ecessarlye velo f revenues to supportt he desiredl evel or distributioonf services.

Sinceb udgetds ependo n appropriationans d nots ales,t he diminutionor terminatioonf publico rganizationasn d programso,r converseltyh eirm aintenancaen d survival, are politicaml atteruss uallyc allingf ort hea pplicationof the mosts ophisticateadt tacko r survivatl acticsi n the arsenalo f thes killedb ureaucrat-politiciaTnh.

The causeso f publico rganizatiodne clinec an be categorizedin toa four-cetlly pologays shownin F igure1.

The causesa red ivideda longt wod imension sa: T19h isi s admittedlay c rudes chemef orl umpingi nstanceosf declineb, uti t does coverm ostc asesa nd allowsf ors omea bstraction. It coversg overnmenintv olvemenint s hort-tercmri ses like naturald isasterss uch as floodsa nd earthquakes, mediumle ngthg overnmentinalt erventiolnikse w arm obilizationa nd countercycliceaml ploymenptr ogramsa,n d longer-terpmub licp rogramlsik ep olior esearchan d treatmenta nds pacee xploration-alol fw hichin volved evelopmentc ycles.

T hesec yclesa re characterizebdy a political definitioonf a problemf ollowedb yt hee xtensivceo mmitmento f resourcetso attainc riticaml assesa nd thenc ontractionasf tert hep roblemh as beens olved,a lleviatedo,r hase volvedin toa lesst roublesomstea geo rp oliticallpyo pulari ssue2.

In these cases,t hec oreb ureaucracierse sponsiblfeo rt reatintgh ese populationisn institutiohnass shrunkas ther isingp erp atientc ost of hospitalizatiohna s combinedw ithp harmaceuticala dvancesi n anti-depressanatnsd tranquilizertos causep ublica ttitudeasn dp rofessiondalo ctrinteo s hift.

I ncludedin t his categoryar e: Environmenteanlt rophayls o has a politicadl imension. As Proposition1 3 makesc lear,t hec apacityo f a governmentis as mucha functioonf thew illingneossf taxpayers to be taxeda s it is of the economicb ase of thet axing region.

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Thep oliticalv ulnerabiliotyf p ublico rganizationiss an internapl ropertiyn dicatinag highl evelo f fragilitayn d precariousnewssh ichli mitst heirc apacityt o resistb udget decrementasn d demandst o contracft romt heire nvironment. O f the factorsw hichc ontributteo vulnerability, ssorular eemt o be morer esponsiblfeo rd eclinea nd death thano thersS. H erbert Kaufmana rguest hato ne of thea dvantageosf organizationso ver solitaryin dividualiss that theyd o provide longerin stitutionmale morietsh ana humanl ifetimea,n d this means that older organizationosu ght to have a broaderr angeo f adaptives kills,m orec apacityf orl earning, more friendsa nd allies, and be more innovative becauset heyh avel sorulae o fearf romm akinga wrongd ecisiont hana youngeorr ganization.

So great is our enthusiasmf or growtht hat even when an organizational decline seems inevitablea nd irreversiblei,t is nearlyi mpossible O f courset, hec auseo fa declinew ill greatlayf fectth esec hoices. StrategicC hoices Publico rganizationbse havei n responsteo a mixo f motives- somea imeda t servingn ational or stateo r local purposess, omea imeda t goals fort heo rganizatioans a whole,a nd otherds irectetdo wardt hep articularistgioca ls of organizationsaul bunitsU.

The presencoef powerfuslu rvivailn stinctins organizationals ubuniths elpst o explainw hyt hep oliticalle adership of publico rganizationcas n be tryintgo respondto legislativeo r executivdei rectivetso cutb ack whilea t thes ame timet hec areera nd programle adershiopf subunitws illb e takinga ctiont o resistc uts.

Marchh as called a “garbagec an problem”- arational,p olycentrifcr, agmenteadn,d d ynamic. W33h ent here is a wided ivergencbee tweenth eo fficiapl ronouncements aboutt hen ecessitfyo rc utsa nd thea ctualo ccurrencoef cuts,s kepticismc,y nicismd, istrusta,n d noncompliance willd ominatteh er etrenchmepnrto cessa nd cutbackm anagementw ill be an adversariapl rocessp ittingt op and middlem anagemenatg ainsto ne anotherI.


I nsteadm, anagerws illc hoosea lessr iskyc ourse and attemptto protecotr ganizationcaal pacityan d proceduresb y smoothindge wles nd itse ffectosn theo rganization. An inventoroyf some of thesec utbackm anagement tacticiss presenteidn Figure2. Theya rea rrayedac cording to thet ypeo fd eclinep roblemw hicht heyc anb e employed to solve. T hisc ollectiono ilkbahaar tacticsb y no meanse xhausts thep ossibleo rganizationrael sponsetso declines ituations, nora rea ll thet actices xclusiveldyir ectetdo wardm eetinag singlec ontingencTyh.

I n thisw aya greatd ealo f informatioanb outo rganizationrael sponsetso declinec an be aggregatedw ithoute xplicatingea ch tactici n great detai3l. The tacticsin tendetdo removeo r alleviatet hee xternal politicala nd economicc auses of declinea re reasonably straightforwamrde ans to revitalizee roded economic bases, reducee nvironmentuanl certaintpyr, otectn iches, retainf lexibilitoyr,l essend ependencTe.

The” exploitt hee xploitablet”a ctica lso callsf orf urther explanationA. It has beenb roughatb outb yt heg luttedm arketf ora cademicp ositionsw hichh ilkbahsr made manyu nluckyr ecent Ph. D’s vulnerablaen d exploitableT.

YDS 2013 Deneme Snav 80 soru

So whiler etrenchmeisn stm ootheadn do rganizatiofnl exibilityin creasedi,t is attaineda t considerablceo stt o the careerasn dj ob securitoyf t hee xploitetde achers. Cutbackm anagemenits a two-crucibpler oblem: As withm osti ssueso fp ublicm anagemenint volvintgh e distributioonf costs,t hec hoiceo f decisionr ulest o allocatec utsu suallyi nvolvest he tradeofbf etweene quity and efficiencyI.

Makingc utso n theb asiso fe quityis easierf orm anagers becausei t is sociallya cceptable,e asiert o justifya, nd involvefs ewd ecisionm akingc osts. F urthers,i mplee quityd ecisionm aking avoidsc ostsf romso ilkbajar lectingan, dn egotiatincgu ts. N everthelestsh, ev alueso f equitya nd efficiencayr e centralt o allocatived ecision makinga nd provideu sefucl riterifao rj udgingt hea ppropriatenesosf cutbackr ules.

B y applyingth esec riteritao fiveo f the mostc ommonlyu als or ilkbahxr utback methods-seniorithyi,r ingf reezese, ven-percentage-cutsacross- the-boarpdr,o ductivictryi teriaa,n d zerob aseb udgeting- wea re able to makea ssessmentosf theire fficacy as manageriatlo ols. Contrary to biological reasoning, aged organizationsa re more flexible than young organizationsa nd, thereforer, arely die alse evens hrinkv erym uch.

Seniorityis them ostp revalenta nd mostm alignedo f the fived ecisionr ules. Diversifyp rograms,c lientsa nd constituents 1. Make peace ulkbahar ompetinga gencies Political 2. Improvel egislativeli aison 2. Cut low prestigep rograms 3. Educate thep ublica bout thea gency’sm ission 3. Cut programst o politicallyw eak clients 4.

Mobilize dependentc lients 4. Sell and lende xpertiset o othera gencies 5. Become “captured” by a powerfuiln terest 5. Share problemsw itho thera gencies group or legislator 6. Threatent o cutv italo r popularp rograms 22009. Find a widera nd richerr evenueb ase e. Improvet argetingon problems Technical metropolitanr eorganization 2.

Plan withp ilkbshar jectives 2. Develop incentivets o preventd isinvestment 3. Cut losses by distinguishinbge tweenc apital 3. Seek foundations upport investmentasn d sunkc osts 4. Lure newp ublica nd privates ectori nvestment 4. Yield concessionst o taxpayersa nd employers 5. Adopt userc hargesf ors ervicesw herep ossible to retaint hem Political Vulnerability Internal 1.

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Issue symbolicr esponsesl ike formingst udy 1. Change leadershipa t each stagei n thed ecline Aales commissionsa nd task forces process 2. Reorganizea t each stage mentalityto retaine spritd e corps 3.

Cut programsr unb yw eak subunits 3. Shiftp rogramst o anothera gency 5. Increaseh ierarchicacl ontrol 1. Renegotiatelo ng termc ontractst o regain Technical 2. Improvep roductivity flexibility 3. Experimentw ithl ess costlys erviced elivery 2. Install rational choice techniques like systems zero-baseb udgetinga nd evaluationr esearch 4. Mortgaget hef utureb y deferrinmg aintenance xles.