Pathobiology of Heterakis gallinarum mono-infection and co-infection with Histomonas meleagridis in layer chickens. Schwarz A(1), Gauly M, Abel H, Daş G . We investigated whether density related effects are directly controlling lifetime fecundity of Heterakis gallinarum. Daily total numbers of H. infecting Brazilian turkeys are reported. The intestinal nematode Heterakis gallinarum appeared with a prevalence of 70% in the infected birds.

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Once eaten, the egg travels through the digestive system of the host until it reaches the intestine where it hatches. Articles with ‘species’ microformats. The juvenile then travels to the cecum where it molts twice before maturing into an adult. Heterakis gallinarum Schrank While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control.

Kaufmann, ; Lund, Their eggs are found to live for years in soil making it difficult to eliminate H. Poultry Diseases6th ed. Olsen, ; Roberts and Janovy, Biology, prevention and control. As a consequence treated animals are cured from worms but do not remain protected against new infections.

Ethiopian living in sub-Saharan Africa south of 30 degrees north and Madagascar. Adult Heterakis worms are rather small roundworms, not longer than 15 mm, very thin and of a whitish color.

Secondary infections are characterized by the formation of nodules in the cecum and the sub mucosa of the cecum. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy.


Predilection site of adult Heterakis worms is the cecum. Neotropical living in the southern part of the New World. Earthworms and houseflies are considered paratenic hosts, as they can ingest the egg in feces and a juvenile may hatch in tissues, which stays dormant until eaten by birds. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa. The female ovaries are large and the uteri end in an opening called the vulva, which in these worms is located close to the middle of the body.

Implications for survival of H.


Females reach sexual maturity and start to lay eggs sometime between the age of 24 and 36 days. It causes infection that is mildly pathogenic. Control of Ticks Biol. Earthworms may ingest the eggs of H. However, it often carries a protozoan parasite Histomonas meleagridis which causes of histomoniasis blackhead disease. Post-labial sensory structures on gallnarum cecal worm, Heterakis gallinarum. Heterakis gallinarum is a parasite of galliform birds, feeding upon their cecal contents.


They also have a nervous system but no excretory organs and no circulatory systemi. As in other nematodes, H.

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Earthworms are often paratenic hosts for the eggs of H. To learn more about vaccines against parasites of livestock and pets c lick here. They are also called cecal worms.

The worms have a tubular digestive system with two openings, the mouth and the anus. Journal of Wildlife Diseases8: No data are available on the lifespan of adult worms, but the eggs of H. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.


The parasite is a diecious species with marked sexual dimorphism. This means that if an anthelmintic fails to achieve the expected efficacy against Heterakis worms it is most likely that gallibarum the product was unsuited for the control of these wormsor it was used incorrectly.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Heterakis worms have direct life cycle.

Heterakis gallinarum also has papillae, which are sensory structures surrounding the lip region. A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, heteramis type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. The duration of time it takes for an egg to molt is dependent upon the temperature at which the egg is kept; a higher temperature accelerates the process, while a lower temperature increases the number of days before the process occurs.

To prevent or at least reduce Heterakis infections it is recommended to keep the birds’ bedding as dry as possible and to frequently change it, because development of the worm’s eggs needs humidity.

Heterakis dispar, Heterakis isolonche.